Research at Dzanga Sangha

Regional and internationally known for its outstanding levels of biodiversity, research opportunities at Dzanga-Sangha are plentiful. Most studies have been on the little-known forest elephant (ongoing since 1990, Turkalo’s research at Dzanga Bai is the longest bai study ever recorded) and the western lowland gorilla. There remains great need for research on both conservation and scientific aspects of a multitude of animals and plants, many of which remain unknown or severely lacking in basic information. Research proposals are welcome for submission to the Dzanga-Sangha research committee (for more information concerning the application procedure refer to the Research Protocol).

Published Articles on Previous Research at Dzanga-Sangha

Elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis)

  • Blake, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Karesh, W.B. (2001). GPS Telemetry of Forest Elephants in Central Africa: Results of a Preliminary Study. African Journal of Ecology 39: 178-186.
  • Carroll, R.W. (1988). Elephants of the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest of South-Western Central African Republic. Pachyderm, 10:12-15.
  • Fay, J.M. (1991). An Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Survey Using Dung Counts in The Forests of the Central African Republic. J. Trop. Ecol. 7: 25-36.
  • Fay, J.M., Agnagna, M. (1991). Forest Elephant Populations in the Central African Republic and Congo. Pachyderm, 14: 3-19.
  • Ruggiero, R.G., Fay, M.J. (1994). Utilisation of Termitarium Soils by Elephants and its Ecological Implications. Afr. J. Ecol. 32: 222-232.
  • Turkalo, A., Fay, M. (1995). Studying Forest Elephants by Direct Observation: Preliminary Results from the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. Pachyderm 20: 45-54.
  • Turkalo, A. (1996). Studying Forest Elephants by Direct Observation: Preliminary Results from the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. Pachyderm 22: 59-60.

Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus)

  • Melletti, M., Penteriani, V., Boitani, L. (2006). Habitat Preferences of the Secretive Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) in Central Africa. Journal of Zoology.

Primates

  • Fay, J.M., Carroll, R.W. (1994). Chimpanzee Tool Use for Honey and Termite Extraction in Central Africa. American Journal of Primatology. 34(4): 309-317.
  • Shah N.F. (2003). Foraging Strategies in Two Sympatric Mangabey Species (Cercocebus agilis and Lophocebus albigena). PhD thesis.

Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)
Carroll, Remis, Goldsmith, Cipolletta, Todd, Masi, Hodgkinson, Michelle, Klara

  • Blom, A. et al. (2001). A Survey of the Apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A Comparison between the Census and Survey Methods of Estimating the Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Nest Group Density. African Journal of Ecology 39: 98-105.
  • Blom, A. (2001). Potentials and Pitfalls of Tourism in Dzanga-Sangha. Gorilla Journal 22, June 2001.
  • Blom, A., Cipolletta, C., Brunsting, A.M.H., Prins, H.H.T. (2004). Behavioral Responses of Gorillas to Habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 25(1): 179-196.
  • Bradley, B.J. et al. (2004). Dispersed Male Networks in Western Gorillas. Current Biology 14: 510–513.
  • Bradley, B.J. et al. (2006). new
  • Carroll, R. (1986). Status of the Lowland Gorilla and other Wildlife in the Dzanga-Sangha Region of Southwestern Central African Republic. pp 38-41.
  • Carroll, R.W. (1988). Relative Density, Range Extention,and Conservation Potential of the Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Dzanga-Sangha Region of Southwestern Central African Republic. Mammalia 52(3): 310-323.
  • Carroll, R.W. (1996). Feeding ecology of Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve of the Central African Republic Phd Thesis, Yale University.
  • Cipolletta, C. (1999). Habituation des Gorilles pour un Tourisme de Vision à Dzanga-Sangha, en Centrafrique. Canopée 13:22-24.
  • Cipolleta, C. (2003). Ranging Patterns of a Western Gorilla Group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) During Habituation to Humans in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology. 24(6): 1207-1226.
  • Cipolletta, C. (2004). Effects of Group Dynamics and Diet on the Ranging Patterns of a Western Gorilla Group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. American Journal of Primatology 64: 193-205.
  • Cipolletta, C., Spagnoletti N., Todd A.F., Robbins M.M., Cohen H., Pacyna S. (2007). Termite Feeding by Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. American Journal of Primatology.
  • Cipolletta, C., Greer, D. (2006) Gorilla Journal.
  • Doran, D.M., McNeilage, A. (1998). Gorilla Ecology and Behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 6(4): 120-131.
  • Doran, D.M., McNeilage, A. (2001). Subspecific Variation in Gorilla Behavior: the Influence of Social and Ecological Factors.
  • Doran, D.M., McNeilage, A., Greer, D., Bocian, C., Mehlman, P. & Shah, N. (2002). Western Lowland Gorilla Diet and Resource Availability: New Evidence, Cross-site Comparisons, and Reflections on Indirect Sampling Methods. American Journal of Primatology 58: 91-116.
  • Doran-Sheehy, D.M. & Boesch, C. (2004). Behavioural Ecology of Western Gorillas: New Insights From the Field. American Journal of Primatology 64: 139-143.
  • Doran-Sheehy, D.M., Greer, D., Mongo, P. & Schwindt, D. (2004). Impact of Ecological and Social Factors on Ranging in Western Gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 64: 207-222.
  • Doran-Sheehy, D.M. (2006). Habituation.
  • Fay, M.J. (1989). Partial completion of a Census of the Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla g. Gorilla (Savage and Wyman)) in Southwestern Central Africa Republic Mammalia, 53 (2):203 – 215.
  • Fay, J.M., Carrol, R., Kerbis, R., Peterhans, R., Harris, D. (1995). Leopard Attack on and Consumption of Gorillas in the Central African Republic. Journal of Human Evolution 29: 93-99.
  • Fay, J.M. (1996). The distribution, habitat, ecology, evolution, and origin of the Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage and Wyman) PhD thesis, Washington University.
  • Goldsmith, M. (1995). Ranging and Grouping Patterns of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in the Central African Republic. Gorilla Conservation News 9: 5-6.
  • Goldsmith, M.L. (1996). Ecological Influences on the Ranging and Grouping Behaviour of Western Lowland Gorillas at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Phd thesis. State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York.
  • Goldsmith, M. (1999). Ecological Constraints on the Foraging Effort of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 20(1): 1-23.
  • Goldsmith, M. (199?). Gorilla Socioecology. In The Nonhuman Primates. Eds. P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes. Mayfield Publishing Company.
  • Goldsmith, M. (200?). gorilla book
  • Kuehl, H.S., Todd, A.F., Boesch, C., Walsh, P.D. (2007). Using dung to estimate gorilla density: Remote sensing and an objective decay criterion. Ecological Applications.
  • Lilly, A.A., Mehlman, P.T., Doran, D. (2002). Intestinal Parasites in Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Humans at Mondika Research Site, Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 23(3): 555-573.
  • Mehlman, P.T., Doran, D.D. (2002). Influencing Western Gorilla Nest Construction at Mondika Research Centre. International Journal of Primatology 23(6): 1257-1285.
  • Remis, M.J. (1993). Nesting Behavior of Lowland Gorillas in the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central Africa Republic: Implications for Population Estimates and Understanding of Group Dynamics. Tropics 2(4): 245-255.
  • Remis, M.J. (1994). Feeding Ecology and Positional Behaviour of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Central African Republic PhD thesis, Yale University.
  • Remis, M.J. (1995). Effects of Body Size and Social Context on the Arboreal Activities of Lowland Gorillas in the Central African Republic. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 97: 413-433.
  • Remis, M.J. (). Results of Research Impacts of Human Activities on Gorillas at Dzanga-Sangha. Gorilla Conservation News 12.
  • Remis, M.J. (1997). Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as Seasonal Frugivores: Use of Variable Resources. American Journal of Primatology.4:87-109.
  • Remis, M.J. (1997). Ranging and Grouping Patterns of Western Lowland Gorilla Group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. American Journal of Primatology 43: 111-133.
  • Remis, M.J. (1999). Tree Structure and Sex Difference in Arboreality among Western Lowland Gorillas at Bai Hokou, C.A.R.. Primate 40(2): 383-396.
  • Remis, M.J. (2000). Gorillas as Gourmands: Digestive Capabilities and food Preferences of Gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Supplement 30: 261.
  • Remis, M.J. (2000). Initial Studies on the Contributions of Body Size and Gastrointestinal Passage Rates to Dietary Flexibility Among Gorillas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 112: 171-180.
  • Remis, M.J. (2000). Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts of Human Activities on Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and other Wildlife at Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic. Oryx 34(1): 56-65.
  • Remis, M.J., Dierenfeld, E.S., Mowry, C.B., Carroll, R.W. (2001). Nutritional Aspects of Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) Diet During Seasons of Fruit Scarcity at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. International Journal of Primatology 22(5): 807-836.
  • Remis, M.J., Kerr, M.E. (2002). Taste Response to Fructose and Tannic Acid Among Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). International Journal of Primatology 23: 251-261.
  • Robbins, M., Bermejo, M., Cipolletta, C., Magliocca, F., Parnell, R.J., Stokes, E. (2004). A Comparative Analysis of Social Structure and Life History Patterns in Western Lowland Gorillas.
  • Rogers, M.E. et al. (2004). Western Gorilla Diet: A Synthesis from Six Sites.
  • Todd A.F., Kuehl, H.S., Cipolletta, C., Walsh, P.D. (in press). Using dung to estimate gorilla density: modeling dung production rate. International Journal of Primatology.

Other animals

  • Blom, A., Chardonnet, B., Chilvers, B., Lubin, R., Lobao tello, J., Fay, M. (1995). Antelope Survey Update Report. IUCN, N.1.
  • Hill, J.E. (1983) Further Records of Bats from the Central African Republic (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Annals of Carnegie Museum 52:55-58
  • Klaus, G., Schmid, B. (1998). Geophagy at Natural Licks and Mammal Ecology: A Review. Mammalia 62(4): 481-497.
  •  Lunde, D., Beresford, P. (1997). Noteworthy Records of Bats from the Central African Republic. Bat Research News, 38(2): 19-20.
  • Ray, J. (1996). Small Carnivores of the Dzanga-Sangha forest Ph.D. thesis, University Gainesville, Florida.
  • Schlitter, D.A., Robbins, L.W., Buchanan, S. (1982). Bats of the Central African Republic (Mammalia: Chirptera) Annals of Carnegie Musuem 51:133-155.

Flora

  • Hall, J.S. et al. (2003). The Effects of Selective Logging on Forest Structure and Tree Species Composition in a Central African Forest: Implications for Management of Conservation Areas. Forest and Ecological Management 6276: 1-16.
  • Hall, J.S. et al. (2002). Seedling Growth of 3 Re-ocurring Entendophragma Species (Meliaceae) Under Simulated Light Environments: Implications for Forest Management in Central Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 6117: 1-10.
  • Hall, J.S. et al. (2003). Seedling Performance of Four Sympatric Entendophragma species (Meliaceae) Under Simulated Fertility and Moisture Regimes of a Central African Rain Forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 55-66.
  • Hall, J.S., McKenna, J.J., Ashton, P.M.S., Gregoire, T.G. (in press). Habitat Classes and Soil Complexity: Habitat Characterizations Underestimate the Role of Edaphic Factors Controlling the Distribution of Entandrophragma.
  • Harris, D. (1996). A Revision of Ivingiaceae in Africa. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 65: 143-196.

Conservation

  • Blom, A. et al. (2004). Human Impact on Wildlife Populations Within a Protected Central African Forest. African Journal of Ecology 42: 23-31.
  • Blom Allard, Robert van Zalinge, Ignas M.A. Heitkönig and Herbert H.T. Prins (2005). Factors influencing the distribution of large mammals within a protected central African forest. Oryx 39(4)
  • Carroll, R. (1992). Central African Republic. Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests. Eds. J.A. Sayer, C.S. Harcourt, & N.M. Collins, MacMillan, London: 119-124.

Anthropology

  • Noss, A.J. (1995). Duikers, Cables, and Nets: A Cultural Ecology of Hunting in a Central African Forest. Ph.D. thesis, University of Florida.
  • Noss, A.J. (1997). Challenges to Nature Conservation with Community Development in Central African Forests. Oryx 31(3).
  • Noss, A.J. (1997). The Economic Importance of Communal Net Hunting among the BaAka of the Central African Republic. Human Ecology 25(1).
  • Noss, A.J. (1998). Cable Snares and Bushmeat Markets in a Central African Forest. Environmental Conservation 25: 228-233.
  • Noss, A.J. (1998). The Impacts of Cable Snare Hunting on Wildlife Populations in the Forests of the Central African Republic. Conservation Biology 12(2): 390-398.
  • Sarno, L. (1993). Songs from the forest: My Life among the BaBenze